Military-grade maritime infrastructure relies heavily on pressure control to ensure smooth operation and the safety of personnel during operations at sea. One of the essential pieces of maritime infrastructure is the pressure-reducing valve—a type of valve that regulates fluid pressure within essential marine infrastructure such as high-pressure hydraulic systems, fuel lines, ammunition storage, and steam boilers.
Dante Valve is a valve manufacturer and distributor dedicated to providing the highest quality valves and meeting military specifications for maritime customers. Join us as we demystify mil-spec pressure-reducing valve design and answer your questions about these essential pieces of flow control equipment.
What does a pressure-reducing valve do?
An effective, military-specification (mil-spec) pressure-reducing valve design provides precise and reliable pressure regulation for critical systems and machinery, prevents leaks and equipment failures, protects maritime personnel and assets, minimizes energy consumption, and more.
Various applications require specific types of pressure-reducing valve design. Some of the main types include:
- Direct-Acting PRV: These valves automatically reduce flow area and maintain desired pressure levels based on the increase and decrease of downstream pressure.
- Pilot-Operated PRV: These valves use a separate control circuit to regulate themselves in high-flow applications or when extremely precise control is needed.
- Ratio-Type PRV: These valves maintain a constant ratio between the downstream pressure and an external reference pressure, proportionally reducing or increasing pressure as needed.
- Differential PRV: Also known as proportional control valves, these valves maintain a constant pressure drop between the downstream side of the valve and the upstream side of the valve.
- Electrically Controlled PRV: Using electric actuators, these valves can be controlled remotely or automated to provide precise pressure control.
In conjunction with TRAC Regulator Co., Dante Valve provides special combination packages of pressure reducing and pressure relief valves to provide convenient flow control solutions for maritime customers.
How do pressure-reducing valves work?
Pressure-reducing valve design relies on a pressure balance mechanism to regulate and reduce the pressure of a fluid. This mechanism often involves a diaphragm, a flexible membrane that moves in response to pressure variations between the two parts of the pressure-reducing valve—the control chamber and the main valve chamber. The movement of the diaphragm in response to changes in pressure adjusts the opening of the valve. Other pressure-reducing valve designs involve a pilot system instead of a diaphragm.
The valve is connected to an inlet and an outlet, in which the inlet side is connected to a high-pressure upstream source and the outlet is connected to a low-pressure downstream system. The job of the pressure-reducing valve is to modulate incoming fluids from the high-pressure source to match the pressure of the downstream system.
Here’s a simple step-by-step breakdown of how a pressure-reducing valve design works:
- High-pressure fluid from the upstream source enters the pressure-reducing valve’s main valve chamber.
- The valve’s sensing mechanism, such as a diaphragm or pilot system, detects changes in downstream pressure and sets or adjusts a pressure control mechanism to maintain target pressure.
- The valve mechanism adjusts the opening of the valve and controls the flow rate of the higher-pressure upstream fluid, reducing its pressure to match the lower-pressure downstream system.
- The valve’s sensing mechanism continually monitors the downstream pressure to adjust the flow rate and pressure of the fluid passing through.
The dynamic adjustment of the valve opening in a pressure-reducing valve design enables the valve to relieve excessive pressure and protect downstream equipment and processes, ensuring safe and efficient operation of critical infrastructure on naval vessels.
How much pressure can a pressure-reducing valve reduce?
A wide range of factors influence how much pressure a pressure-reducing valve design is capable of reducing. Depending on size, type, or construction, pressure-reducing valves can reduce the pressure of an incoming fluid by a significant proportion. For example, a pressure-reducing valve design may be able to reduce pressure from up to several hundred pounds per square inch (psi) to a few psi or even fractions of a psi—a reduction by a factor of hundreds or even thousands.
Every unique type and model of pressure-reducing valve will have its own precise pressure-reduction capabilities. It’s important to select pressure-reducing valves that are rated to handle the maximum upstream pressure of your infrastructure and are capable of reducing fluid pressure to match the desired downstream pressure.
A pressure-reducing valve’s efficacy can also be affected by other factors such as flow rate, temperature, and other fluid properties such as density or viscosity.
Why Closing a Valve to Reduce Water Pressure Isn’t Enough
Pressure reduction is critical for maritime operations, but does it really need a special valve? One might ask, “Why use pressure-reducing valves at all? Can you reduce water pressure by closing a valve?” The answer is no.
Simply closing valves does not effectively reduce pressure, and it might even cause risks to your downstream equipment and even your personnel. For example:
- Closing valves can lead to upstream pressure buildups above safe operating limits.
- Closing valves does not provide precise pressure control like pressure-reducing valves do.
- Abruptly closing a valve can cause water hammer or pressure surges, damaging your valves or pipes.
- Excessive pressure can lead to equipment failures, leaks, or even explosions, depending on the systems affected.
- Pressure-reducing valves optimize energy usage through precise control; closing valves does not—in fact, closing valves wastes energy.
How to Adjust a Pressure-Reducing Valve
Optimal performance from your pressure-reducing valve provides a wealth of benefits, from smooth and stable infrastructure operation to the safety of your crew and personnel to energy efficiency. Getting the most out of your pressure-reducing valve depends on knowing how to effectively adjust the valve:
- Identify the desired outlet pressure
- Locate the adjustment screw or knob
- Gradually turn the screw to increase or decrease the pressure
- Monitor the outlet pressure using a pressure gauge
Working with high-pressure systems can present safety risks, so always take precautions to protect yourself and others when adjusting your valves:
- Shut down the upstream system and isolate the valve from the pressure source before beginning work.
- Wear appropriate PPE, including eye protection, to protect yourself from potential hazards.
- Release any residual pressure in the downstream system.
- Make gradual adjustments to the valve to avoid sudden pressure changes.
- Document the changes you make.
- Consult trained technicians and engineers in high-risk or complex situations.
How to Tell If a Water Pressure Regulator is Bad
If you notice occasional and unexpected spikes or drops in pressure or consistently high or low pressure, you may have an issue with your pressure-reducing valve. Leaks or water hammer can also indicate a bad water pressure regulator.
To troubleshoot your pressure-reducing valve for regulator issues, visually inspect the components of your pressure-reducing valve and the inlet and outlet valves, clean or replace filters if needed, and verify pressure settings. If you can’t identify or resolve valve issues on your own, contact a qualified technician for more in-depth diagnostics.
Dante Valve – Ensuring Excellence in Mil-Spec Pressure-Reducing Valve Design
Dante Valve is focused on putting your needs first and delivering quality that lasts. As a valve manufacturer that thinks like a distributor, our mission is to offer the highest quality in mil-spec manufacturing as well as responsive, reliable customer service.
We hold our safety relief valve and pressure-reducing valve designs to the exacting standards of military specifications with industry-leading response times and immediate delivery—getting you the high-performance, long-lasting valves you need for safe and smooth maritime operations when you need them.
Contact our team to request a quote for pressure reducing valves.